Integriertes Graduiertenkolleg (MGK)
Über das Graduiertenkolleg
In der zweiten Förderphase wird der SFB 1187 „Medien der Kooperation“ durch ein „Integriertes Graduiertenkolleg“ (MGK) ergänzt. Inhaltlich schließt das MGK an den Anspruch des SFB an, eine historisch konturierte, praxeologisch ausgerichtete Gegenwartsforschung digitaler, verteilter und vor allem sensorbasierter Medien zu realisieren.
Aufgabe des MGK ist, die Ausbildung der Promovierenden aus den Teilprojekten des SFB zu bündeln und systematisch zu unterstützen. Hierzu werden mit den Teilnehmer*innen relevante, theoretische und methodische Grundlagen der digitalen Medienpraxisforschung erarbeitet. Alle Doktorand*innen des SFB beteiligen sich an regelmäßigen Kolloquien und Workshops. In der Werkstatt Medienpraxistheorie werden nationale und internationale Gäste zu Vorträgen und Diskussionen eingeladen. In Data Labs werden empirische Forschungsdaten gemeinschaftlich diskutiert. Im Research Tech Lab findet kollaborativer Austausch über Tools und Forschungsmethoden statt. In selbstorganisierten, interdisziplinären Kleingruppen arbeiten die Promovierenden darüber hinaus an Themenstellungen, die im Umfeld des SFB, der Teilprojekte und der Dissertationen angelegt sind und neue Impulse für die Forschung generieren.
Die Aktivitäten des MGK sind ferner darauf ausgerichtet, die internationale Vernetzung des SFB weiter auszubauen und das thematische Spektrum des SFB durch die Integration innovativer Promotionsprojekte zu erweitern. Dieses Ziel wird vor allem durch jährlich vergebene, 12-monatige Kurzzeitstipendien erreicht, mit denen nationale und internationale early-career-Forscher*innen und vielversprechende Projekte an das pulsierende Umfeld des SFB gebunden werden.
Research Assistant in B08 „Agentic Media: Formations of Semi-Autonomy“
Dissertation Project: The Media that follow: Navigatorische Prozesse und Medienpraktiken sensorbasierter, semi-autonomer Akteure am Beispiel von Hobbydrohnen
Abstract: The research project deals with the „Medien-werden“ (the way in which the drone becomes a medium) of sensor-based, semi-autonomous drones as situated media capable of both generating knowledge about their surroundings and acting upon it. The project looks into drone practices in both recreational and commercial application contexts. While in recent years stable media practices such as the „dronie“ have become established in the context of recreational drone-usage, the drone is also experiencing increasing professionalization in the private sector. Especially in agriculture, more and more control and monitoring tasks are carried out with the help of drones. The data collected can be used to determine whether fields need to be watered or fertilized and promises to eventually be able to tend to individual plants. The focus of current developments lies on the interoperability of agricultural equipment to automate work processes as far as possible. The PhD project ties in with these developments and examines the redistribution of agency on one hand and the emergence of a changed spatial consciousness on the other.
Ranjodh Singh Dhaliwal
Dissertation Project: Rendering: A Political Diagrammatology of Computing
Abstract: In 1822, there were fierce conversations about “rendering” the plans of Charles Babbage’s Difference Engine. Many years later, in 1975, “rendering” the Utah teapot would be considered a landmark achievement in the history of computing. Over the last 150 years, this term rendering, which describes the transition between a virtual (or ‘potential’) and an actual (or ‘real’) object, has become increasingly important for our technological cultures. Circuit diagrams get rendered into computer hardware and datasets are rendered into images. Considering this long history by infusing a media-oriented investigation of computer architecture into the cultural history of computer graphics, this project narrates a history of the computer as a rendering machine.
This project accomplishes this political diagrammatology of computing in two intra-active phases. On the one hand, I tell stories detailing how ideology becomes computational. Studying maps, plans, and sketches from the early history of hardware and software, I show how computer technologies are frequently imagined as virtual microcosms, reproducing infrastructures and systems of social relations found in classrooms, military labs, and tech offices. Here, social forms, ideologies and assumptions about the world get worked into seemingly apolitical technological infrastructures, and politics of race, class, and gender get hard-coded into the very architecture of computers themselves. On the other hand, I study the politics of representational forms produced by such computer hardware, recounting how computational infrastructure produces ideologies of its own. In doing so, I probe the constraints and affordances of computer graphics and the worlds that they are able or unable to envision. Here, the computational architectures that seemed apolitical produce devastating(ly) social and political ramifications.
Rendering first interrogates how computational concepts (such as pipelines of the 1960s or parallel architecture from the 1980s) are culturally, graphically, and sometimes even fictionally constructed, and then enumerates the social ramifications of such techno-logics. Borrowing methods and concerns from media studies, science and technology studies, and science fiction studies, this project unpacks the historical, mediatic, and epistemological transitions between our politico-economic frameworks and contemporary computational cultures. Underscoring the influence computing, politics, and cultural media have had on each other’s histories, the project aims to produce an analytic that can successfully account for the material-virtual translations in our technical operations. The result is a history and theory of rendering.
Tim Moritz Hector
Research Assistant in B06 „Un-/desired Observation in Interaction: “Intelligent Personal Assistants” (IPA)“
Dissertation Project: Voice Assistants in Talk-in-Interaction: Transformation and emergence of linguistic and cultural everyday-practices through acquisition of media with voice-user-interfaces
Abstract: Intelligent Personal Assistants (IPAs), which are controlled via (oral) voice user interfaces (VUIs), are used in a steadily increasing number of households. The Voice Assistants that are to be the focus of this project are installed in the living environment. The devices can be operated orally, but can also be controlled via app. The oral control procedures show similarities to interpersonal social interaction (Krummheuer 2010).
In the doctoral project, I examine from a linguistic point of view how Voice User Interfaces get domesticated and embedded in everyday-interactions. Which everyday-practices occur and stabilize as linguistic patterns within the communicative repertoire of interactors? With an empirical base of data collected in different households, I will research practices in interaction (Goodwin 2018). Following the distinction by Deppermann et al. (2016), I will research these practices in three dimensions: (i) on a linguistic-conversational level (Schegloff 1997), (ii) with a genre-specific perspective (Günthner/Knoblauch 1994) and (iii) with an approach of social practices beyond the communicative (Schatzki 2002). The project combines methodological approaches of ethnomethodological conversation analysis (Garfinkel 1967; Sacks/Schegloff/Jefferson 1974) and ethnographic analysis of talk-in-interaction (Deppermann 2000) as well as interactional linguistics (Selting/Couper-Kuhlen 2001).
Research Assistant in Subproject A03 „Navigation in Online/Offline Spaces“
Dissertation Project: Navigating the Noise: A praxeological examination of self-localizing interfaces
Abstract: Since their rise to popularity in the 2000s, Mixed Reality interfaces and applications have been the subject of a plethora of studies within the fields of spatial research in general and human geography in particular: the way the technology influences the production of space, questions of escapism and privacy as well as the transformative potential MR might exert on societies at large were discussed, oftentimes in highly speculative ways.
This PhD project takes a step back from these macro-scale endeavours. Instead, it proposes the basic principle behind all Mixed Reality technology as a starting point for further discussion: MR interfaces share a common reliance on a specific relation between the user’s point of view, the position of the interface itself and the angle at which the digital objects are presented on said interface. The illusionistic effect produced by this spatial arrangement of physical and digital objects – as well as the socio-spatial transformations depending on that illusion – can thus be boiled down to a micro-scale navigational problem that has to be solved in a concerted effort by an actor-network comprised of both human and technological actors, i.e. the user and the employed hard- and software.
Adopting this approach opens up two promising avenues of research: On one hand, a praxeological study of recent MR interfaces aims to shed light on the ways in which movement through hybrid spaces, as well as interaction with hybrid objects, can (or cannot) be facilitated through sensor-based micro-navigational practices. On the other hand, an analysis of MR’s unique navigational challenges will contribute to the fields of media geography and sensor media research by contextualising MR technology within a wider range of historical and recent navigational practices.
Scientific Coordination / Controlling
Dissertation Project: Entrepreneurship of the Moravian Church in the 19th/20th Century
Abstract: Entrepreneurial Activities had a long tradition in the Moravian Church, funding the religious life of the Protestant community, which was founded in the 18th century in Herrnhut in Saxony. The decision to put the conglomerate of industrial, trade, handicraft and agricultural companies under centralized professional management in the year 1895 marked not only a fundamental organizational change. For the first time business lost its traditional close connection with the local congregations, as management competences were transferred from their elected elders to a small group of directors of finance. Moreover, the reorganization was a vote for investment in growth, new markets and innovations and necessarily led to an increased need of financial resources. How did the church secure the finance of the companies and in which way did the specific ownership influence the financial relationships with the creditors? Taking a business history perspective, the study aims at identifying possible competitive advantages or disadvantages of a religious entrepreneur. The period in focus stretches over roughly fifty years until the end of World War II, which was resulting in the loss of property in Silesia and thus putting the business activities of the Moravian Church practically to an end.
Dissertation Project: Rethinking YouTube: BreadTube and the Volatility of Platform Publics
Abstract: Platform publics are networked publics that assemble in and are constituted by platform environments; they are mutually activated through the data-driven algorithmic affordances of the platform, its governance model, and user perceptions and interactions within the platform’s bounds. In this project I suggest the notion of platform publics to account for the intermingling of socio-technical processes that make online platforms (in this case: YouTube) resistant to stable definitions. As part of the CRC project area B: ‘Cooperative Media,’ this project will elaborate on the relational network through which human and non-human actors assemble in the process of collective cultural production and dissemination within YouTube. Taking into consideration the algorithmic affordances of YouTube’s neural networks, which condition recommendations on the platform, this study is interested in the grammars of action (Agre 1994) that specific platform publics develop in order to ensure visibility and a stable revenue stream. The platform public that forms the focal point of this research study is BreadTube, a political collective of YouTube-native, left-leaning content creators and their following. This project will focus on the following research question:
RQ1: How does time unravel for a platform public? YouTube stands out as a video sharing platform because it has maintained the role of an archive in its technical functions. In other words, users have access to content published a few minutes ago and many years ago in the same tab of recommendations. Therefore, users are afforded the opportunity to not only view but also engage with (like/dislike/comment on) older content from the creators they follow. An ostensibly benign technical function of the platform introduces a series of more complicated implications for user interactions. Ironically, though YouTube originally intended to serve as a video repository, it has actually allowed collective formations that negate a linear passage of time all-together as users interact with content produced and other users across vieos published at various points in time, (arguably this is a perception of the platform encouraged by YouTube itself, since comments are ranked by “most relevant” by default, and one would have to manually change that setting to view the “most recent” comments).
Research Assistant in Subproject A06 „Visual Integrated Clinical Cooperation“
Dissertation Project: Due to the growing complexity of the course of treatment in modern hospitals, the distribution of medical activities in clinical pathways plays an increasingly important role, which, for its part, entails an intensive cooperation between various medical personnel. Such a cooperation requires an efficient and effective conveyance of patient-related diagnostic data relevant for each particular task. This requirement is difficult to meet with traditional data representation forms, such as text, alone. In this context, visualisation systems are a promising alternative. The goal of this doctor thesis is to develop an approach for visualisation of diagnostic patient data in cooperative clinical settings and to proof its feasibility by means of a prototypical implementation on a mobile device.
At the core of our approach is the idea to exploit the long visual tradition existent in medicine, which is tightly related to the human anatomy, in order to achieve an intuitive visualisation with a high user acceptance. Taking advantage of the fact that a significant part of the diagnostic cooperative data, e.g. clinical symptoms, are inherently associated with affected anatomical structures, we propose the concept of anatomically integrated in-place visualisation. This means that these data are encoded with appropriate visual attributes, such as colour or texture, which then are applied by rendering of the geometries of a 3D avatar that represent the respective anatomical structures.
We assume that the spatial embedding of data in the anatomical context makes their relation to the underlying real phenomena more evident, facilitating their assessment. It allows for the simultaneous visualisation of all diagnostic data relevant in the given cooperative settings, providing a synopsis of the current patient status at a glance and this way supporting a fast circulation of information.
The tightest relation between the visualization and the patient with the resulting benefits can be achieved if the 3D avatar not only represents body structures anatomically correctly but also possesses a resemblance to the real person. Such an avatar individualisation requires a 3D scene reconstruction from depth data, which can be acquired, for instance, with range cameras. One of the crucial factors for the reconstruction quality is the accuracy of camera tracking. In the case of a mobile device, however, limited CPU and GPU capabilities as well as a low spatial and temporal resolution of the depth data make an accurate tracking particularly challenging. This thesis addresses the mobile camera tracking problem augmenting the depth data with the data from inertial sensors and incorporating an appropriate sensor fusion method into the reconstruction pipeline.
A further fundamental challenge associated with the anatomically integrated visualisation regards the design of visual encoding. On the one hand, multiple medical data can refer to the same anatomical structure. Thus, to allow for their simultaneous visualisation a careful selection of complementary visual attributes is required. On the other hand, the encoding of quantified medical data has to take into account the limited distinctiveness of visual attributes for the human perception. The focus of this thesis is on the development of generalisable approaches for a semiautomatic data encoding in the context of a spatially embedded visualisation.
Research Assistant in Subproject B04 „Digital Publics and Social Transformation in the Maghreb“
Dissertation Project: Technological Implementation and Appropriation in the Rural – Design Case Studies on the Sustainability of socio-technical Interventions
Abstract: The significance and usage of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in rural areas has crucially increased over the last years. People acknowledge the benefits it can bring to a variety of fields, such as education, finding work, early detection of natural disasters or health. However, a lot of initiatives (especially coming from development efforts) lack the participation of the people they are supposed to target. Adapting the perspective of Grounded Design, collecting multiple Design Case Studies and following an ethnographic and qualitative approach, I accompany the presented interventions from the early exploration of the field, the negotiation and establishment of cooperation, the implementation of socio-technical systems and ongoing evaluation and appropriation processes.
In this dissertation, I evaluate the success and sustainability of different socio-technical interventions in rural areas based on these indicators: the role of ethnography, genuine participation, ownership and capacity building.
Dissertation Project: Mediatized democratic activisms on the margins of Europe – a comparative analysis of digital media practices of minority movement actors
Abstract: The PhD project investigates digital media practices implemented by politically marginalized movement actors in Europe. It explores to what extent they use them in the context of their participation aspirations and which forms of mediatized socio-political intervention strategies can be demonstrated here. Therefore, the explorative study focuses on three movement actors: Firstly, the Neuen Deutschen Organisationen, a post-migrant network in Germany; secondly KAMER, a Kurdish feminist organization in Turkey; and thirdly the European Network of Migrant Women, a transnational network led by refugee women. The transcultural comparative research project is implemented according to the principles of the netnographic grounded theory – a form of an online media ethnography, which follows the methodology of the grounded theory. Hereby, the study refers to praxeological considerations and is heuristically inspired by current mediatization research and the perspectives of radical democratic theories.
Dissertation Project: Voice Assistants as a sociotechnological phenomenon: Of infrastructres and platforms
Abstract: Intelligent Personal Assistants (IPA) as an assistive digital technology are further proliferating in pop culture and everyday life. According to big tech companies IPAs are supposed to ‘make lives easier’ and ‘help get things done’. At least in some aspects however, reality seems to differ from that promise. Ideally IPAs would function as an infrastructure to mundane tasks that blend into background and do not need to be considered at the moment of use. Taking a relational stance, I want to investigate in what kind of situations IPAs work frictionless and correspondingly when interactional difficulties tend to occur. Given the field of nascent technology, these processes are a moving target that will have to be captured over time. Investigating the different evolving characteristics of these sociotechnical situations could e.g. shed light on relations of power, invisible labour and contingency in the use of IPA and further understanding of different types of actors involved. Thus, I qualitatively explore the development of human-machine-interactions in the context of IPAs like Alexa or Google Assistant.
Theoretically my research is based on concepts of sociotechnical infrastructure and assistance (within the broad spectrum of STS) and the concept of digital platform technologies (as discussed in media studies). While the former affords the aforementioned relational view on technology, the latter adds a valuable perspective to understand the implications of algorithms and datafication that frame interaction with IPAs. The convergence of these two fields of study enables a perspective that can show relationality, dependencies and inequalities on the one hand. On the other hand, these aspects can be set into perspective by considering platform technologies as data driven sociotechnical complexes that can shape interactions. I therefore assume IPAs to be infrastructures and platforms at the same time and explore various levels of observation as well as different types of involved actors. Here the iterative production of social reality is being shaped by various entities with different values, resulting in various methodological approaches.
Dissertation Project: Caste as Computing: A historical and ethnographic analysis of the absence and persistence of caste in computing cultures of India.
Abstract: I am broadly interested in feminist methods of studying worlds of science and technology in India and draw from disciplines of Science and Technology Studies, Anthropology and Information Science for my work. My dissertation project is looking at caste and castelessness as a heuristic to analyze the contemporary culture of computing in India through a study of absence of caste and risks associated with making it visible. I am deeply motivated by anti-caste and anti-racist feminist frameworks that I bring in conversation with ethnomethodological approaches of studying the practices of computing as well as programs of diversity and inclusion in computing in India. My work is pulling together different actors, programs and discourses in a historical and ethnographic project to trace the relationship between caste, labor and capital at the basis of practices and logics of the contemporary computing industry in India. At the CRC „Media of Cooperation“, I will be working on my dissertation project looking at computing as a media practice where caste relations are underscored to study the publics formed, engaged and stabilized in the historical and contemporary upper-caste cultures of computing.
In addition to this, I am working on multiple projects of engaging with caste and gender in digital infrastructures. For example, one of my projects looks at how caste is performed and manifested in social networks on Twitter and another focuses on situated and gendered labor of coping with standards in/of digital infrastructures of governance in India.
Fernando van der Vlist
Research Assistant in A03 „Navigation in Online/Offline Spaces“
Dissertation Project: Digital platforms as governing information systems
Abstract: Digital platforms for social media are both underpinned by and enmeshed with larger digital infrastructure, making them increasingly complex research objects for scholars, individuals, and policymakers and regulators alike. Yet as governing systems, digital platforms organise, structure, and regulate the technical, social, economic, and cultural relationships between key parties in digital societies around the globe. The purpose of this dissertation is twofold: first, to articulate an empirically-informed understanding of digital platforms as infrastructures that organise datafication and governance relationships at/across different levels of the architecture; second, to develop research methodologies for the empirical and historical study of datafication and governance at these different architecture levels. The empirical case studies span three architecture levels: (i) the architecture of individual social media platform; (ii) the connected/interrelated ecosystems of multiple social media platforms; and (iii) relations between the mobile social media apps and app ecosystems built ‘on top of’ mobile platforms. Taken together, these entry points provide fundamental insights into the organisation of datafication and governance relationships as they emerge in digital infrastructure. Such practical insights about the implementation of datafication and governance are relevant to current scholarly debate on the significance of social media, digital platforms, and digital infrastructure. They are also relevant to public deliberation and to design effective regulations for governing the digital/datafied society. In the wake of revelations and growing public concerns about the power and influence of digital platforms and infrastructure in culture, society, and politics, it is particularly important that we develop a fundamental understanding of digital platforms and their evolving presence in specific marketplaces and domains and in society at large. Despite the criticism, many of these digital platforms remain among the largest, most global, and most widely used technical systems in history.
Technography in Practice
(Daniela van Geenen, Danny Lämmerhirt, Tatjana Seitz)
The working group makes an effort to delve into the possibilities of “technography” (e.g. Bucher, 2012; Jansen & Vellema, 2011; Kien, 2008; Rammert & Schubert, 2006; Vannini et al., 2009; Schubert, 2019) exploring digital devices and platforms (e.g. hardware, software; their development, adaptation and use). The main focus of the working group will be directed toward actual analysis of technical objects and/or tools in relation to relevant media and data practices. Such analyses can consist of analyzing the development process of hardware, software, platforms, and/or devices (using relevant documentation) and material generated by means of using these technical objects, technologies/tools (incl. logs; (auto)ethnographic descriptions, collectively or individually achieved etc.). Our goal is “to learn and develop technography by doing” building on our own case studies iteratively and discuss in our meetings how technography works and can be used approaching the specific case studies. The activities of the working group might also consist of reading groups and discussions of main concepts connecting to our own textual work relating to technography.
Technological actors in social situations
(Hendrik Bender, Tim Moritz Hector, Max Kanderske)
The reading group discusses the role of technological actors in social situations. We read and critique the concepts and underlying theoretical systems of Interaction (starting off from Schütz, Garfinkel and Goodwin), Interoperability and Agency.
We plan to read the relevant literature, discuss if the concepts can be applied to our own work and to the phenomena of our research focus. This also includes regular discussions of material, texts produced by members of the groups and bits and pieces we find during the research process.
Design of the interdisciplinary work for technology development
(Julia Kurz, Aynalem T. Misganaw, Dmitri Presnov)
The goal of this working group is to analyse the main challenges that arise by the cooperation between different disciplines participating in the development of a new technology and to draw up a guideline for an efficient design of such interdisciplinary cooperative work. Of particular interest are such aspects as reconciliation of discipline-specific goals and perspectives, delimitation vs inclusion in the distribution of tasks, elaboration of tools and a common language for an interdisciplinary concept transfer.
Outreach. A blog by the Collaborative Research Center “Media of Cooperation”
(Jason Chao, Pip Hare, Sarah Rüller, Fernando van der Vlist)
Outreach is a blog for researchers, journalists, activists, and anyone else interested in thinking about the broader societal relevance and impacts of the academic work associated with the Collaborative Research Center “Media of Cooperation” at the University of Siegen, Germany. The CRC “Media of Cooperation” is an international and interdisciplinary research community consisting of more than 60 researchers across the humanities, social sciences, information sciences, and medical sciences. We hope to encourage debate on issues related to our work, share experiences and perspectives on digital scholarship, and reach out to a larger audience.
The editorial team coordinates the blog and ensures its quality. If you would like to contribute or have ideas for the blog, please contact us.