SFB 1187 ›Medien der Kooperation‹ an der Universität Siegen

B04 - Digital Publics and Social Transformation in the Maghreb


Principal Investigators:

Prof. Dr. Volker Wulf

Prof. Dr. Martin Zillinger

Dr. Markus Rohde


Konstantin Aal

Andrea Hartmann

Simon Holdermann

Sarah Rüller

Dr. Peter Tolmie



The research project focuses on media practices in Morocco and analyzes the emergence of new publics and forms of cooperation within the ongoing social transformation processes of North Africa. The project analyses the conditions for civil society cooperation in situations of change and aims to contribute both theoretically and practically to the differentiation of the concept of publicness as well as to the reflection of media-historical concepts of modernization.

The interdisciplinary connection of socio-informatics and social anthropology zooms in on the potential of digital media practices to create new possibilities for action, to generate consensus and dissent, and to mobilize new forms of publicness in this process. On the basis of the investigation of these processes in situ, the project aims to design, implement and evaluate socio-technical (infra-) structures.

In order to engage with these research questions, the project draws on a participatory approach and collaborative design and action research in addition to extensive (media) ethnographic field work: Together with local Moroccan actors, the NGO "Amezray SMNID", a socio-informatic intervention in the field of education and development policy was successfully launched in the High Atlas. This intervention achieves the situated training of media competencies in accordance with the ComputerClub concept, both locally and in transnational cooperation.

In an extended research perspective, the production of new media and data practices under different conditions in an intra-Moroccan and intercontinental comparison is now additionally brought into focus. Cooperative forms of fragmented (digital) publics are also taken into account transnationally within migration networks of the Moroccan diaspora to Germany. For this purpose, the connection to and the cooperative linking with another ComputerClub offer in Dortmund is an important component of the future research project.

The comparative research and design of appropriation practices and cooperative media takes into account the increasing differentiation of publicness in Euro-Mediterranean societies





The book is an exploration of the theoretical, conceptual and methodological foundations of human-centred design. Specifically, it critically examines the notion of 'practice' and argues for an understanding of the concept which emanates from engagement with design problems rather than simply from social scientific theory. The contributors to the book in their various ways all subscribe to a systematic account of how practice-oriented studies can inform design.

Wulf, V., Pipek, V., Randall, D., Rhode, M., Schmidt, K., & Stevens, G. (Eds.). (2018). Socio-Informatics: A Practice-based Perspective on the Design and Use of IT Artifacts. Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.



Aal, K. (n.d.). Social Media Usage in the MENA Region in Conflict Areas - A Comparative Study of three Countries [PhD Thesis].
Holdermann, S. (n.d.). Digital Publics and Social Transformation in the High Atlas, Morocco [PhD Thesis].
Rüller, S., Aal, K., Holdermann, S., Rohde, M., Zillinger, M., & Wulf, V. (n.d.). “Technology is everywhere, we have the opportunity to learn it in the valley”: The Establishment of a Sustainable ICT Intervention in the High Atlas. Int. J. on CSCW.
Tadic, B., Rohde, M., Wulf, V., & Randall, D. (n.d.). Challenges and Opportunities of Privacy and Security in ICT and Social Media Use by Activists. Int. J. on CSCW.
Zillinger, M. (n.d.). Thinking about space by starting from its limits. Czarnowski on the Rhythm of Space. In On the Social Origins of Thought: Durkheim, Mauss and the Category Project. Oxford: Berghahn.
Zillinger, M., Schick, J., & Schmidt, M. (n.d.). ‘The Category Project’: A Cooperative Experiment Unfolds. In On the Social Origins of Thought: Durkheim, Mauss and the Category Project. Oxford: Berghahn.
Zillinger, M., Schick, J., Schmidt, M., & Schüttpelz, E. (n.d.). On the Social Origin of Thought. The Category-Project of the Durkheim-School. Oxford: Berghahn.



Antweiler, C., Knecht, M., Voss, E., & Zillinger, M. (Eds.). (2020). What’s in a Name? Die Kontroverse um die Umbenennung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Völkerkunde. boasblogs. https://boasblogs.org/de/whatsinaname/



Aal, K., Krüger, M., Rohde, M., Tadic, B., & Wulf, V. (2019). Social Media and ICT Usage in Conflicts Areas. In C. Reuter (Ed.), Information Technology for Peace and Security (pp. 383–401). Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-25652-4_18
Ahmadi, M., Weibert, A., Wenzelmann, V., Aal, K., Gäckle, K., Wulf, V., & Marsden, N. (2019). Designing for Openness in Making: Lessons Learned from a Digital Project Week. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Communities & Technologies - Transforming Communities - C&T ’19, 160–171. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1145/3328320.3328376
Baringhorst, S., Marres, N., Shove, E., & Wulf, V. (2019). How Are Infrastructures and Publics Related and Why Should We Care? An Email Conversation. In Infrastructuring Publics (pp. 69–86). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-20725-0_4
de Castro Leal, D., Krüger, M., Misaki, K., Randall, D., & Wulf, V. (2019). Guerilla Warfare and the Use of New (and Some Old) Technology: Lessons from FARC’s Armed Struggle in Colombia. Proceedings of the 2019 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - CHI ’19, 1–12. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1145/3290605.3300810
Holdermann, S. (2019). Co-operation and/as Participant Observation: Reflections on Ethnographic Fieldwork in Morocco. Media in Action, 1. https://www001.zimt.uni-siegen.de/ojs/index.php/mia/article/view/49
Holdermann, S., & Aal, K. (2019). Wie dekolonial kann Kooperation sein? TATuP Zeitschrift für Technikfolgenabschätzung in Theorie und Praxis, 28(2), 17–22. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.14512/tatup.28.2.s17
Krüger, M., Aal, K., Wulf, V., Tachtler, F. M., Talhouk, R., Duarte, A. M. B., Fisher, K. E., Yafi, E., & Charitonos, K. (2019). Technology at/of the border: a workshop about stories and experiences. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Communities & Technologies - Transforming Communities - C&T ’19, 336–342. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1145/3328320.3328408
Krüger, M., Duarte, A. M. B., Weibert, A., Aal, K., Talhouk, R., & Metatla, O. (2019). What is participation?: emerging challenges for participatory design in globalized conditions. Interactions, 26(3), 50–54. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1145/3319376
Rüller, S., Aal, K., & Holdermann, S. (2019). Reflections on a Design Case Study - (Educational) ICT Intervention with Imazighen in Morocco. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Communities & Technologies - Transforming Communities - C&T ’19, 172–177. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1145/3328320.3328406
Rüller, S., Aal, K., & Holdermann, S. (2019). Hands-On vs. Hands-Off - Reflections on an (Educational) ICT Intervention in the High Atlas. With an Eye to the Future: HCI Research and Practice in the Arab World, 55–59. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1145/3290607.3299006
Saeed, S., Pipek, V., Rohde, M., Reuter, C., Fabiano Pinatti de Carvalho, A., & Wulf, V. (2019). Nomadic Knowledge Sharing Practices and Challenges: Findings From a Long-Term Case Study. IEEE Access, 7, 63564–63577. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2916903
Talhouk, R., Bustamante Duarte, A. M., Aal, K., Weibert, A., Krüger, M., Wulf, V., Fisher, K., Tachtler, F., Shahid, S., & Ahmed, S. I. (2019). Refugees & HCI SIG: Situating HCI Within Humanitarian Research. Extended Abstracts of the 2019 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - CHI EA ’19, 1–4. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1145/3290607.3311754



Aal, K., Rüller, S., Holdermann, S., Tolmie, P., Rohde, M., Zillinger, M., & Wulf, V. (2018). Challenges of an Educational ICT Intervention: The Establishment of a MediaSpace in the High Atlas. International Reports on Socio-Informatics, 15(2), 1–20. https://www.iisi.de/international-reports-on-socio-informatics-irsi/
Aal, K., Weibert, A., Schubert, K., Sprenger, M.-A., & Von Rekowski, T. (2018). come_NET: Connecting Computer Clubs with a Community Platform. In Socio-informatics (pp. 1–20). Oxford University Press. https://oxford.universitypressscholarship.com/view/10.1093/oso/9780198733249.001.0001/oso-9780198733249-chapter-13
Aal, K., Schorch, M., Elkilani, E. B. H., & Wulf, V. (2018). Facebook and the Mass Media in Tunisia. Media in Action, 1, 135–167. https://www001.zimt.uni-siegen.de/ojs/index.php/mia/article/view/36
Aal, K., Weibert, A., Talhouk, R., Vlachokyriakos, V., Fisher, K., & Wulf, V. (2018). Refugees & Technology: Determining the Role of HCI Research. Proceedings of the 2018 ACM Conference on Supporting Groupwork - GROUP ’18, 362–364. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1145/3148330.3152160
Holdermann, S., Lange, C., Schmischke, J., & Zeineddine, S. (2018). Das Flurgespräch als ethnographisches Feld. https://blog.uni-koeln.de/gssc-whatsinaname/2018/07/31/das-flurgespraech-als-ethnographisches-feld/
Meurer, J., Müller, C., Simone, C., Wagner, I., & Wulf, V. (2018). Designing for Sustainability: Key Issues of ICT Projects for Ageing at Home. Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW), 27(3–6), 495–537. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1007/s10606-018-9317-1
Randall, D., Dachtera, J., Dyrks, T., Nett, B., Pipek, V., Ramirez, L., Stevens, G., Wagner, I., & Wulf, V. (2018). Research into Design Research Practices: Supporting an  Agenda towards Self - Reflectivity and Transferability. In V. Wulf, V. Pipek, D. Randall, M. Rohde, K. Schmidt, & G. Stevens, Socio - Informatics  - A Practice - based  Perspective on the Design  and Use of IT Artefacts (pp. 491–540). Oxford University Press. https://oxford.universitypressscholarship.com/view/10.1093/oso/9780198733249.001.0001/oso-9780198733249-chapter-17
Randall, D., Rohde, M., Schmidt, K., & Wulf, V. (2018). Introduction: Socio-informatics-Practice Makes Perfect? In Socio-informatics (pp. 1–20). Oxford University Press. https://oxford.universitypressscholarship.com/view/10.1093/oso/9780198733249.001.0001/oso-9780198733249-chapter-1
Schick, J. F., Schmidt, M., van Loyen, U., & Zillinger, M. (2018). Homo Faber. Zeitschrift für Kulturwissenschaften, 2. https://www.transcript-verlag.de/978-3-8376-3917-9/homo-faber/
Stevens, G., Rohde, M., Korn, M., Wulf, V., Pipek, V., Randall, D., & Schmidt, K. (2018). Grounded design. A research paradigm in practice-based computing. Oxford University Press, 139–176. https://oxford.universitypressscholarship.com/view/10.1093/oso/9780198733249.001.0001/oso-9780198733249-chapter-2
Tadic, B., Rohde, M., & Wulf, V. (2018). CyberActivist: Tool for Raising Awareness on Privacy and Security of Social Media Use for Activists. In G. Meiselwitz (Ed.), Social Computing and Social Media. User Experience and Behavior (Vol. 10913, pp. 498–510). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-91521-0_36
Talhouk, R., Bustamante, A., Aal, K., Weibert, A., Charitonos, K., & Vlachokyriakos, V. (2018). HCI and Refugees. Interactions, 25, 46. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1145/3215846
Weibert, A., Aal, K., Rohde, M., & Wulf, V. (2018). Scaling local experiences to global challenges: insights from grounded design and value sensitive design. Ethics and Information Technology, 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10676-018-9470-8
Wulf, V., Pipek, V., Randall, D., Rohde, M., Schmidt, K., & Stevens, G. (2018). Socio-informatics. Oxford University Press. https://oxford.universitypressscholarship.com/view/10.1093/oso/9780198733249.001.0001/oso-9780198733249
Zillinger, M., Schick, J. F., Schmidt, M., & van Loyen, U. (2018). Einleitung. In Homo Faber: Zeitschrift für Kulturwissenschaften. transcript Verlag. https://www.transcript-verlag.de/978-3-8376-3917-9/homo-faber/?c=312000157



Ludwig, T., Dax, J., Pipek, V., & Wulf, V. (2017). A Practice-Oriented Paradigm for End-User Development. In F. Paternò & V. Wulf (Eds.), New Perspectives in End-User Development (pp. 23–41). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-60291-2_2
Paternò, F., & Wulf, V. (Eds.). (2017). New Perspectives in End-User Development. Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-60291-2
Rohde, M., Brödner, P., Stevens, G., Betz, M., & Wulf, V. (2017). Grounded Design - a praxeological IS research perspective. Journal of Information Technology, 32(2), 163–179. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1057%2Fjit.2016.5
Rüller, S., & Aal, K. (2017, June). Exploring Technology Opportunities for Developing Countries: The 3D Printer as an Example. Workshop Paper.
Stickel, O., Aal, K., Fuchsberger, V., Rüller, S., Wenzelmann, V., Pipek, V., Wulf, V., & Tscheligi, M. (2017). 3D printing/digital fabrication for education and the common good: Workshop at the International Conference on Communities & Technologies 2017. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Communities and Technologies - C&T ’17, 315–318. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1145/3083671.3083708
Talhouk, R., Vlachokyriakos, V., Aal, K., Weibert, A., Ahmed, S., Fisher, K., & Wulf, V. (2017). Refugees & HCI Workshop: The Role of HCI in Responding to the Refugee Crisis: Workshop. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Communities and Technologies - C&T ’17, 312–314. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1145/3083671.3083719
Talhouk, R., Vlachokyriakos, V., Weibert, A., Aal, K., Ahmed, S. I., Fisher, K., & Wulf, V. (2017). Refugees & HCI Workshop: The Role of HCI in Responding to the Refugee Crisis. Proceedings of the 2017 CHI Conference Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems - CHI EA ’17, 558–565. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1145/3027063.3027076
Weibert, A., Aal, K., Oertel Ribeiro, N., & Wulf, V. (2017). “This is My Story...”: Storytelling with Tangible Artifacts among Migrant Women in Germany. Proceedings of the 2016 ACM Conference Companion Publication on Designing Interactive Systems - DIS ’17 Companion, 144–149. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1145/3064857.3079135
Weibert, A., Mouratidis, M., Khateb, R., Rüller, S., Hosak, M., Potka, S., Aal, K., & Wulf, V. (2017). Creating Environmental Awareness with Upcycling Making Activities: A Study of Children in Germany and Palestine. Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Interaction Design and Children - IDC ’17, 286–291. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1145/3078072.3079732
Weibert, A., Randall, D., & Wulf, V. (2017). Extending Value Sensitive Design to Off-the-Shelf Technology: Lessons Learned from a Local Intercultural Computer Club. Interacting with Computers, 29(5), 715–736. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1093/iwc/iwx008
Wulf, V., & Batya, F. (2017). Grounded Design in a Value Sensitive Context – A Conversation. Media in Action, 2. https://www001.zimt.uni-siegen.de/ojs/index.php/mia/article/view/28
Zillinger, M. (2017). Basale Tatsachen. Ein Zwischenruf der “radikalen Kartographie” zur Migrationsdebatte. https://lisa.gerda-henkel-stiftung.de/basale_tatsachen._ein_zwischenruf_der_radikalen_kartographie_zur_migrationsdebatte?nav_id=7033
Zillinger, M. (2017). Die fremde Welt des Sozialen. Durkheim lesen! Ein Themenschwerpunkt zum 100. Todestag. https://soziopolis.de/erinnern/jubilaeen/artikel/durkheim-lesen/#_ftn13
Zillinger, M. (2017). Rethinking anthropology’s tricks of the trade: From a comparative anthropology to an anthropology of comparison. HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory, 7(3), 393–397. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.14318/hau7.3.025
Zillinger, M. (2017). Graduated Publics: Mediating Trance in the Age of Technical Reproduction. Current Anthropology, 58(S15), S41–S55. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1086/689740
Zillinger, M., Antweiler, C., & Voss, E. (Eds.). (2017). Blog: Kulturrelativismus und Aufklärung. https://blog.uni-koeln.de/gssc-kulturrelativismus/ueber-diesen-blog/
Zillinger, M., Brus, A., Voss, E., Förster, L., & Knecht, M. (Eds.). (2017). Blog: Wie weiter mit Humboldts Erbe? Ethnographische Sammlungen neu denken. https://boasblogs.org/humboldt/



Aal, K., Mouratidis, M., Weibert, A., & Wulf, V. (2016). Challenges of CI Initiatives in a Political Unstable Situation - Case Study of a Computer Club in a Refugee Camp. Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Supporting Group Work - GROUP ’16, 409–412. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1145/2957276.2996281
Hoan, N. T., Chib, A., & Mahalingham, R. (2016). Mobile phones and Gender Empowerment: Enactment of “Restricted Agency.” Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies and Development - ICTD ’16, 1–10. https://doi.org/http://doi.org/10.1145/2909609.2909671
Lazar, J., Abascal, J., Barbosa, S., Barksdale, J., Friedman, B., Grossklags, J., Gulliksen, J., Johnson, J., McEwan, T., Martínez-Normand, L., Michalk, W., Tsai, J., van der Veer, G., Axelson, H., Walldius, A., Whitney, G., Winckler, M., Wulf, V., Churchill, E. F., … Wentz, B. (2016). Human–Computer Interaction and International Public Policymaking: A Framework for Understanding and Taking Future Actions. Foundations and Trends® in Human–Computer Interaction, 9(2), 69–149. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1561/1100000062
Rohde, M., Aal, K., Misaki, K., Randall, D., Weibert, A., & Wulf, V. (2016). Out of Syria: Mobile Media in Use at the Time of Civil War. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 32(7), 515–531. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1080/10447318.2016.1177300
Zillinger, M. (2016). „Nafri“als Symbol für die Flüchtlingskrise? Marokkanische Perspektiven auf euromediterrane Migration. Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte, 33–34. https://www.bpb.de/apuz/232427/nafri-als-symbol-fuer-die-fluechtlingskrise-marokkanische-perspektiven-auf-migration?p=1
Zillinger, M., & Dreschke, A. (2016). Blurred Spirits. VHS aesthetics and nostalgic expectations in the trading zone of trance. The Modernity of Ghosts. Voices from Around the World, 2. http://voices.uni-koeln.de/2016-2/blurredspirits



Aal, K., von Rekowski, T., Yerousis, G., Wulf, V., & Weibert, A. (2015). Bridging (Gender-Related) Barriers: A Comparative Study of Intercultural Computer Clubs. Proceedings of the Third Conference on GenderIT, 17–23. https://doi.org/http://doi.acm.org/10.1145/2807565.2807708
Ahmed, N., Haque, A. M. M., & Doyle, L. (2015). Entering the dream world of computers. Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies and Development - ICTD ’15, 1–4. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1145/2737856.2737860
Rode, J. A., Weibert, A., Marshall, A., Aal, K., von Rekowski, T., El Mimouni, H., & Booker, J. (2015). From computational thinking to computational making. Proceedings of the 2015 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing - UbiComp ’15, 239–250. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1145/2750858.2804261
Weibert, A., Aal, K., von Rekowski, T., & Wulf, V. (2015). “Hey, can we make that, please?”: Upon Craft as a Means for Cross-cultural Community-Building. The Journal of Community Informatics, 11(2). http://ci-journal.net/index.php/ciej/article/view/1188
Xu, Y., Maitland, C., & Tomaszewski, B. (2015). Promoting participatory community building in refugee camps with mapping technology. Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Information and Communication Technologies and Development - ICTD ’15, 1–4. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1145/2737856.2737883
Yerousis, G., Aal, K., von Rekowski, T., Randall, D. W., Rohde, M., & Wulf, V. (2015). Computer-Enabled Project Spaces: Connecting with Palestinian Refugees Across Camp Boundaries. Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 3749–3758. https://doi.org/10.1145/2702123.2702283
Zillinger, M. (2015). Absence and the Mediation of the Audio-Visual Unconscious. In H. Behrend, A. Dreschke, & M. Zillinger (Eds.), Trance Mediums and New Media (pp. 77–99). Fordham University Press. DOI:10.5422/fordham/9780823253807.003.0004
Zillinger, M. (2015). Territories of Grace. The Past and Future of Mediterranean Trance. In M. Dabag (Ed.), New Horizons. Mediterranean Research in the 21st Century (pp. 427–439). Fink. https://doi.org/10.30965/9783657766321_020
Zillinger, M. (2015). Landschaften voll Heimsuchung und Gnade. Zur Geschichte und Zukunft mediterraner Trance. Der besessene Süden. Tumult. Vierteljahresschrift für Konsensstörung, 3. https://portal.dnb.de/opac.htm?method=simpleSearch&cqlMode=true&query=idn%3D1189171139
Zillinger, M. (2015). Was sind mediale Räume? In C. Bender & M. Zillinger (Eds.), Handbuch der Medienethnographie (pp. 173–186). Reimer. https://www.reimer-mann-verlag.de/controller.php?cmd=detail&titelnummer=102849&verlag=4
Zillinger, M. (2015). Trance Mediums and New Media. Introduction. In H. Behrend, A. Dreschke, & M. Zillinger (Eds.), Trance Mediums and New Media (pp. 1–24). Fordham University Press. http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/j.ctt1287g07
Zillinger, M., & Bender, C. (2015). Medienethnographie: Praxis und Methode. In C. Bender & M. Zillinger (Eds.), Handbuch der Medienethnographie (p. XI–LII). Reimer. https://www.reimer-mann-verlag.de/pdfs/102849_1.pdf
Zillinger, M., & Bender, C. (Eds.). (2015). Handbuch der Medienethnographie. Reimer. https://www.reimer-mann-verlag.de/controller.php?cmd=detail&titelnummer=102849&verlag=4
Zillinger, M., & Dreschke, A. (2015). Trance-Medien-Archive marokkanischer Bruderschaften. Mit Bild-Strecke. In A. Lüdtke & T. Nanz (Eds.), Laute, Bilder, Texte: Register des Archivs (pp. 91–102). Vandenhoek und Ruprecht. https://doi.org/10.14220/9783737002363.91
Zillinger, M., & Schüttpelz, E. (Eds.). (2015). Begeisterung und Blasphemie. Zeitschrift für Kulturwissenschaften. 2. https://www.transcript-verlag.de/978-3-8376-3162-3/begeisterung-und-blasphemie/
Zillinger, M., & Schüttpelz, E. (Eds.). (2015). Klare Worte. Jeanne-Favret-Saada zu einer Anthropologie der Blasphemie. Begeisterung und Blasphemie. Zeitschrift für Kulturwissenschaften, 2, 263–266. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.14361/zfk-2015-0235
Zillinger, M., Behrend, H., & Dreschke, A. (2015). Trance-Mediums and New Media. Spirit Possession in the Age of Technical Reproduction. Fordham University Press. https://www.fordhampress.com/9780823253821/trance-mediums-and-new-media/